The Shiva Sutras
The Shiva Sutras are a collection of aphorisms that form a foundation of the tradition of Kashmir Shaivism, though the Spandashastra is more detailed. The are also know as Shiva Upanishad Samgraha or Shivarahasyagama Samgraha.
The sutras are attributed to the sage Vasugupta of the 9th century C.E.. Vasugupta is said to have lived near Mahadeva Mountain in the valley of the Harvan stream behind what are now the Shalimar Gardens near Srinagar.
Translation by Subhas Kak (see bottom)
* 1 - śāmbhavopāya - Universal consciousness
1-1 Consciousness is the self.
1-2 (Ordinary) knowledge consists of associations.
1-3 Sets of axioms generate structures.
1-4 The ground of knowledge is matrka
[matrka : Mother of all creation - Maheshvari (Sanskrit: Māheśvarī) is the power of shiva in his aspect as Maheshvara]
1-5 The upsurge (of consciousness) is Bhairava.
1-6 By union with the energy centers one withdraws from the universe.
1-7 Even during waking, sleep, and deep sleep one can experience the fourth state (transcending consciousness)
1-8 (Sensory) knowledge is obtained in the waking state.
1-9 Dreaming is free ranging of thoughts.
1-10 Deep sleep is maya, the irrational.
1-11 The experiencer of the three states is the lord of the senses.
1-12 The domain of the union is an astonishment.
icchā śaktirumā kumārī
1-13 The power of the will is the playful Uma.
1-14 The observed has a structure.
hrdaye cittasamghattād drśyasvāpnadarśanam
1-15 By fixing the mind on its core one can comprehend perceivable and emptiness.
śuddhatattvasandhānād vā apaśuśaktih
1-16 Or by contemplating the pure principle one is free of the power that binds (to associations).
1-17 Right discernment is the knowledge of the self.
1-18 The bliss of the sight is the joy of samadhi.
1-19 The body emerges when the energies unite.
bhūtasandhāna bhūtaprthaktva viśvasamghattāh
1-20 Elements unite, elements separate, and the universe is gathered.
1-21 Pure knowledge leads to a mastery of the wheel (of energies).
1-22 The great lake (of space-time) is experienced through the power of mantra.
* 2- śāktopāya - The emergence of innate knowledge
2-1 The mind is mantra.
2-2 Effort leads to attainment.
2-3 The secret of mantra is the being of the body of knowledge.
garbhe cittavikāso'viśista vidyāsvapnah
2-4 The emergence of the mind in the womb is the forgetting of common knowledge.
vidyāsamutthāne svābhāvike khecarī śivāvasthā
2-5 When the knowledge of one's self arises one moves in the sky of consciousness---the Shiva's state.
2-6 The guru is the means.
2-7 The awakening of the wheel of matrka (the elemental energies).
2-8 The body is the oblation.
2-9 The food is knowledge.
vidyāsamhāre taduttha svapna darśanam
2-10 With the extinction of knowledge emerges the vision of emptiness
* 3 ānavopāya - The transformations of the individual - Die Transformationen des Individuums
3-1 The mind is the self.
3-2 (Material) knowledge is bondage (association).
kalādīnām tattvānām aviveko māyā
3-3 Maya is the lack of discernment of the principles of transformation.
śarīre samhārah kalānām
3-4 The transformation is stopped in the body.
nādī samhāra bhūtajaya bhūtakaivalya bhūtappthaktvāni
3-5 The quieting of the vital channels, the mastery of the elements, the withdrawal from the elements, and the separation of Elemente
3-6 Perfection is through the veil of delusion.
mohajayād anantābhogāt sahajavidyājayah
3-7 Overcoming delusion and by boundless extension innate knowledge is achieved.
3-8 Waking is the second ray (of consciousness).
3-9 The self is the actor.
3-10 The inner self is the stage.
3-11 The senses are the spectators.
3-12 The pure state is achieved by the power of the intellect.
3-13 Freedom (creativity) is achieved.
yathā tatra tathānyatra
3-14 As here so elsewhere.
visargasvābhāvyād abahih sthitestatsthitih
3-15 Emission (of consciousness) is the way of nature and so what is not external is seen as external.
3-16 Attention to the seed.
āsanasthah sukham hrade nimajjati
3-17 Seated one sinks effortlessly into the lake (of consciousness).
svamātrā nirmānam āpādayati
3-18 The measure of consciousness fashions the world.
vidyā avināśe janma vināśah
3-19 As (limited) knowledge is transcended, birth is transcended.
kavargādisu māheśvaryādyāh paśumātarah
3-20 Maheshvari and other mothers (sources) of beings reside in the sound elements.
trisu caturtham tailavadāsecyam
3-21 The fourth (state of consciousness) should be used to oil the (other) three (states of consciousness).
magnah svacittena praviśet
3-22 Absorbed (in his nature), one must penetrate (the phonemes) with one's mind.
prāna samācāre samadarśanam
3-23 The lower plane arises in the center (of the phoneme).
3-24 A balanced breathing leads to a balanced vision.
mātrāsvapratyaya sandhāne nastasya punarutthānam
3-25 What was destroyed rises again by the joining of perceptions with the objects of experience.
3-26 He becomes like Shiva.
3-27 The activity of the body is the vow.
3-28 The recitation of the mantras is the discourse.
3-29 Self-knowledge is the boon.
3-30 He who is established is the means and knowledge.
svaśakti pracayo'sya viśvam
3-31 The universe is the aggregate of his powers.
3-32 Persistence and absorption.
tat pravrttāvapyanirāsah samvettrbhāvāt
3-33 Even when this (maintenance and dissolution) there is no break (in awareness) due to the perceiving subjectivity.
3-34 The feeling of pleasure and pain is external.
3-35 The one who is free of that is alone (with consciousness).
3-36 A mass of delusion the mind is subject to activity.
bheda tiraskāre sargāntara karmatvam
3-37 When separateness is gone, action can lead to creation.
3-38 The power to create is based on one's own experience.
3-39 That which precedes the three (states of consciousness) vitalizes them.
cittasthitivat śarīra karana bāhyesu
3-40 The same stability of mind (should permeate) the body, senses and external world.
3-41 Craving leads to the extroversion of the inner process.
3-42 When established in pure awareness, (the craving) is destroyed and the (empirical) individual ceases to exist.
bhūtakañcukī tadā vimukto bhūyah patisamah parah
3-43 Although cloaked in the elements one is not free, but, like the lord, one is supreme.
3-44 The link with the vital breath is natural.
nāsikāntarmadhya samyamāt kimatra savyāpasavya sausumnesu
3-45 Concentrating on the center within the nose, what use are the left and the right channels or susumna?
bhūyah syāt pratimīlanam
3-46 May (the individual) merge (in the lord) once again.
- Sivasutra - Consciousness and freedom according the siva sutras, Subhash C. Kak
- Kshemaraja (1911). The Shiva Sutra Vimarshini: Being the Sutras of Vasu Gupta with the Commentary Called Vimarshini. Band 1 von The Kashmir series of texts and studies, Kṣemarāja, Jagadish Chandra Chatterji, Rāmacandra Gadāri, Archaeological & Research Department, Jammu & Kashmir State, 1911Princeton University, 2009
- Shivasutras - A translation and rendering by Yogiraj Prem Prakash
- Saints and Sages of Kashmir , Triloki Nath Dhar
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