Jhanas and Dhyana in Buddhism
In Buddhism, Dhyāna (Sanskrit) or Jhāna (Pali) is a series of cultivated states of mind, which lead to "state of perfect equanimity and awareness (upekkhii-sati-piirisuddhl)."
Jhanas appear very frequently in the discourses of the Buddha (suttas) like in Anguttara Nikaya 9.36 . Several directions of Vipassanā teach similar steps of Vipassana(Vipassanā-Nyānas).
== Rupa Jhanas==
The rupajhanas are described in the Mahā-Assapura Sutta, the chapter 39 of the Majjhima Nikaya iin the verses 15 to 18. The shapely rupajhanas are :
1, paṭhama-jhāna (Skt: prathamadhyāna, wörtlich 'erstes jhana') - retreat from sensuality
2. dutiya-jhāna (Skt: dvitīyadhyāna - silence of thoughts and ratings
3. tatiya-jhāna (Skt: tṛtīyadhyāna) - contentment
4. catuttha-jhāna (Skt: caturthadhyāna) - utter peacefulness
In the fourth rupajhana exist already Upekkha( equanimity ) and Ekkagata (pointedness, concentration ). But concentration still refers to things like color and shape.
== Arupa Jhanas ==
The arūpajhānas are a part of the kammatthanas (the first 10 Kammaṭṭhāna are the 10 Kasina-exercises) and are referred to as the four formless states.
They are also described in the Anupada-Sutta.
While rupajhanas differ considering their characteristics, arupajhanas are connected with formless meditations and differ as their object is determined by the level of the jhana:
- fifth jhāna: infinite space (Pali ākāsānañcāyatana, Skt. ākāśānantyāyatana),
- sixth jhāna: infinite consciousness (Pali viññāṇañcāyatana, Skt. vijñānānantyāyatana),
- seventh jhāna: infinite nothingness (Pali ākiñcaññāyatana, Skt. ākiṃcanyāyatana),
- eighth jhāna: neither perception nor non-perception (Pali nevasaññānāsaññāyatana, Skt. naivasaṃjñānāsaṃjñāyatana).
== Nirodha Samāpatti==
After overcoming of the eighth Jhana the state of the saññāvedayitanirodham (' Extinction of perception and feeling ') and then the state of an Arhat (and Nirvana) is reached. From this comes the misunderstanding that nirvana is a personal extinction.
== Weblinks ==
- Accesstoinsight : Jhanas in Theravada Buddhism
- Leighb : The Jhānas (Concentration States)
- Leighb : Interpretations of the Jhanas
- Leighb : Instruction for Entering Jhana by Leigh Brasington, Insight Journal, 2002.
- Wiki about Dhyana in Buddhism
- Wiki about Arupajhana
- Dhammawiki : Nine Jhanas
- Wanderling :Jhanas in Theravada buddhist meditation
- Bhikkhu Henepola Gunaratana : Jhanas in Theravada buddhist meditation
- Four Jhanas inside meditation