In Buddhism, Dhyāna (Sanskrit) or Jhāna (Pali) is a series of cultivated states of mind, which lead to "state of perfect equanimity and awareness (upekkhii-sati-piirisuddhl)."
Jhanas appear very frequently in the discourses of the Buddha (suttas) like in Anguttara Nikaya 9.36 . Several directions of Vipassanā teach similar steps of Vipassana(Vipassanā-Nyānas).
== Rupa Jhanas ==
The rupajhanas are described in the Mahā-Assapura Sutta, the chapter 39 of the Majjhima Nikaya iin the verses 15 to 18. The shapely rupajhanas are :
1, paṭhama-jhāna (Skt: prathamadhyāna, wörtlich 'erstes jhana') - retreat from sensuality
2. dutiya-jhāna (Skt: dvitīyadhyāna - silence of thoughts and ratings
3. tatiya-jhāna (Skt: tṛtīyadhyāna) - contentment
4. catuttha-jhāna (Skt: caturthadhyāna) - utter peacefulness
In the fourth rupajhana exist already Upekkha( equanimity ) and Ekkagata (pointedness, concentration ). But concentration still refers to things like color and shape.
== Arupa Jhanas ==
The arūpajhānas are a part of the kammatthanas (the first 10 Kammaṭṭhāna are the 10 Kasina-exercises) and are referred to as the four formless states.
They are also described in the Anupada-Sutta.
While rupajhanas differ considering their characteristics, arupajhanas are connected with formless meditations and differ as their object is determined by the level of the jhana:
== Nirodha Samāpatti ==
After overcoming of the eighth Jhana the state of the saññāvedayitanirodham (' Extinction of perception and feeling ') and then the state of an Arhat (and Nirvana) is reached.
== Weblinks ==