Nirvana and Parinirvana
== Theravada ==
Nirvana(Pali Nibbana; japan. nehan) in Buddhism corresponds to the state of complete permanent enlightenment. It is considered in Theravada as asankhatadhamma, a state of stagnation of all worldly states, and thus as a kind of extinction, but also as the highest jhana. Here exist some disagreements regarding the understanding of Nirvana as extinction.
The Dalai Lama commented the understanding of nirvana as 'extinction' in his book 'The Wisdom of the Void' as a mistake in the system of transmission of the Srvakas. It may also have something to do with a misunderstanding of extinction in Nirodha Samāpatti.
The Mahayana teaches a ein Nirvana without rest (niropadhi-nirvana). Nirvana, however, does not correspond to the big emptiness that goes beyond, but first to the Dharmakaya. This emptiness is reached in the Parinirvana and (in truth) further exceeded, in the Mahayana to the consciousness of Samantabhadra.
In the Lankavatara Sutra says the Blessed One in Chapter 1: You do not disappear into Nirvana, nor does Nirvana abide in you, for Nirvana transcends all duality of knowledge and knowing, of being and not-being. 
The Lotus Sutra teaches that one can attain the state of Nirvana by awakening to one's indwelling Buddha-nature, which is, however, an awakening as the culmination of a long process of development rather than just a satori.
The Anūnatvāpūrṇatvanirdeśaparivarta teaches similar about Nirvana, Darmadhatu and Buddha-Nature.
Saraha emphasizes the Sahajiyā as an essential nature over Nirvana, much as Saraha emphasized the Sahaja - i.e. there are still higher steps ....like Parinirvana.
The Parinirvana ( Samyaksambodhi ) corresponds also to the end of the Gandavyuha-Sutra and to the completion of the step 19 of the universal path, and it does not quite include the universal Mahaparanirvana of the universal step 20, in which the Buddha enters into the esoterically designed curriculum vitae.
In Shaiva Siddhanta, this state corresponds to merging with the cosmic chit-shakti of the Sadashiva, who is far beyond a Samantabhadra and therefore not officially, neither in Mahayana or Hinduism.
The Mahaparinirvana Sutra concludes: When this Dharma was transmitted, 10,000 bodhisattvas gained the real idea of one's life, 1000500 Bodhisattvas attained the two-life Dharmadhatu, 1000500 Bodhisattvas attained the highest knowledge, and 3,500 Bodhisattvas awoke to the highest truth. This highest truth is also the Paramartha - Sunyata, and also the Suramgama - Samadhi. 45,000 Bodhisattvas gained the All-Empty Samadhi. This all-emptiness samadhi is also referred to as the vast and great samadhi, and as the knowledge impression - samadhi.
== Hinduism ==
In Jnana yoga, the terms Jnana and Brahmajnana stand for higher knowledge. Enlightenment happens through the light of the Atman and through the Chit or through Samadhi. Full enlightenment occurs in nirbikalpa samadhi (unity with the nirguna - brahman), which is equivalent to true Moksha.
"Silence and entry into a vast or even immeasurable or infinite emptiness is part of the inner spiritual experience." The physical mind shies away from this silence and emptiness and feels a certain discomfort. "The little superficially busy thinking or vital being shies with dread before it, for it confounds silence with mental or vital dullness, and emptiness with oblivion and nonbeing, but this silence is the silence of the spirit, the basis for higher cognition, for greater power and bliss, this void is the emptiness of the shell of our natural being Pouring out its murky dregs, so that it may be filled with the wine of God, they do not signify the transition to non-being but to a higher existence, and even when the being proceeds to "extinction," this extinction does not result in non-being but into an unspeakable vastness of spiritual being or z to jump into the unspeakable superconsciousness of the Absolute "Samadhi. , (Sri Aurobindo , Life Divine II, 28 : The divine life, pg. 1065),
-- and he comments on the many pseudo-luminaries:
Overwhelmed by the first onslaught and the sense of the power of a supernormal state, they are blinded by a small light that seems to them like a tremendous enlightenment, or by the touch of a force that they mistakenly believe to be the full divine power, or at least for a very big yoga shakti; or they accept an intermediate power as the highest and an intermediate consciousness as the highest realization.
They are all too willing to believe that they have attained the full, full cosmic consciousness, though it is only a front or a small part of it, or a larger mind, a life force, or subtle realms with which they have entered into a dynamic connection (Sri Aurobindo, Letters on Yoga, Vol. 3)
Adi Shankara is considered the author of the Nirvāṇa-ṣaṭkam : mano-buddhy-ahaṁkāra-cittāni nāhaṁ, na ca śrotra-jihve na ca ghrāṇa-netre na ca vyoma-bhūmir na tejo na vāyuś, cid-ānanda-rūpaḥ śivo ’haṁ śivo ’ham : I am neither mind, mind, ego or memory, nor ear, tongue, nor nose, eye, nor space, earth, nor fire, nor air; I consist of consciousness and bliss, I am the Divine, I am the Divine
== Universal Nirvana ==
From the standpoint of the universal path Nirvana has the 3 steps Nirvana(End of step 18), Paranirvana(Step 19.1) and Mahaparinirvana(Step 19.2). The term Parinirvana is not identical with the universal Paranirvana(Step 20).
The Maha-Paranirvana of step 20 (Buddha's death with levels of ever deeper meditation after previous 'conversion of all relatives') transcends the Trikaya and the Sunyata, and also the Ishvara and thus the Samantabhadra. It means entry into the plane of Satyaloka .
However, it is also in a very supreme wisdom, which is not defined or unknown in Buddhism. A compromise would be to expand the void by several levels as in the shaivist Swacchanda Tantra.
In the spiritual hierarchy of the sun, from which Buddhism is said to have been initiated, there is also a Buddha of step 22.
== Literature ==
- Complete Enlightenment: Translation and Commentary on the Sutra of Complete Enlightenment; Shengyan - Christopher Marano - Guo-Gu,Dharma Drum Publications , 1997 , ISBN-10: 0960985476
- Nirvana - Sunyata - Vijnaptimatrata
- Yogastudies : Nirvanasatkam