Bitte aktivieren Sie Javascript !

Upanishads

Upanishads (upaṇiṣad, sit down near; at the teacher's feet ) are secret teachings at the end of the Veda.

Vyasa is said to have divided the Vedas into 1180 Saakaas. To each of which belonged a Upanishade but which are not preserved. To the Rigveda belong today 10, to the Samaveda 16, to the Atharvaveda 31, to the Krishna - Yajurveda 32 and the Sukla - Yajurveda 19 Upanishads.

The Hindu tradition recognizes 108 Upanishads, which are mentioned in the Muktika Upanishade. The oldest Upanishads date back  to 800 BC.  They are headed by the 10 Mukhya  Upanishads, also commented on by Shankara.


Therefore the father should only tansfer this teaching of the Brahman to the eldest son, or even to a familiar disciple, but to no one else, whoever it may be. And even if a man offered to him the water-gnawed earth with all his wealth: "This is more worthy," he shall think, "this is more," so he shall think.(Chandogya - Upanishad 3,11,5-6)


The Upanishads are rooted in the Brahmanas, the ancient vedic magic, whose practice belonged to the knowledge of the caste of priests. They were thus exclusive and could not be made accessible to the lower castes. Access has also been restricted by the Sanskrit language.

The Brahman became in the Upanishads the highest transcendent force and, along with the power that has been effective in magical rituals, it also characterized increasingly  the cosmic almighty power as the essence of all that we are and know.

 

Major Upanishads

There are a number of non-uniform classifications to the Upanishads.

12 Upanishads are regarded as main upanishads (Mukhya):  :

1. Isa, 2. Kena, 3. Katha, 4. Taitiriya, 5. Aitareya, 6. Praṣna , 7. Mundaka, 8. Mandukya, 9. Chandogya, 10. Shvetashvatara Upanishad, 11. Brihad-aranyaka, 12. Maha-Narayana.

Weitere 8 als kleinere Upanishaden bezeichnet: 1. Kaivalya, 2. Kaushitaki, 3. Atma, 4. Amritabindu, 5. Brahma, 6. Paramahamsa, 7. Sarva 8. Aruni (Aruneya).

Oldest Upanishads

  • Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, Chandogya-Upanishad, Taittirya-Upanishad, Kaushitaki-Upanishad, Aitareya-Upanishad, Kena-Upanishad, Maha-Narayana-Upanishad

Second group:

  • Katha , Sheveta-, Shvatara- , Isha- , Mundaka- , Prashna- , Maitrayaniya Upanishad und Mandukya-Upanishade(s.o.).

Mukhya Upanishads

The 10 sog. Mukhya Upanishads count for shruti

  1. Īṣa, " The inner ruler "
  2. Kena " Who moves the world? "
  3. Kaṭha " Death as a teacher "
  4. Praṣna " The breath of life "
  5. Muṇḍaka - " The 2 types of knowledge "
  6. Māṇḍūkya " Consciousness and its phases "
  7. Taittirīya " From food to joy "[2]
  8. Aitareya " The microcosm of man "
  9. Chāndogya " Song and sacrifice "
  10. Bṛhadāraṇyaka " Atman and Brahman"

General Samanya Vedanta - Upanishads [3] :

  • Kauśītāki, Subāla, Mantrika, Sarvasāra, Nirālamba, Śukarahasya, Vajrasūchi, Ātmabodha, Skanda (Tripāḍvibhūṭi), Mudgala, Paiṅgala, Mahad, Śārīraka, Ekākṣara, Sūrya, Akṣi, Adhyātmā, Sāvitrī, Ātmā, Prāṇāgnihotra, Muktika

Remaining Upanishads

The remaining Upanishads are divided into five groups:

  • Samanya-Vedanta-Upanishads(of Vedanta)
  • Samnyasa-Upanishads( The ideal of renunciation )
  • Shakta-Upanishads ( The feminine aspect of the Divine and its Shakti )
  • Sekten-Upanishads( Explaination of the teachings of special cults and gods )
  • Yoga-Upanishads, Explain different aspects of yoga and especially of Hatha yoga

Yogaupanishads

In the Muktika - Canon the following 17 Upanishads are listed as Yogaupanishads:

  1. Shukla Yajurveda: Hamsa Upanishad, Trisikhi - Upanishad, Mandalabrahmana - Upanishad
  2. Krishna Yajurveda: Amritabindu Upanishad, Amritanada Upanishad, Kshurika Upanishad, Dhyanabindu Upanishad, Brahma Vidya Upanishad, Yogatattva Upanishad, Yogashikha Upanishad, Yogakundalini - Upanishad
  3. Atharvaveda: Sandilya - Upanishad, Pashupata Upanishad, Mahavakya Upanishad
  4. Samaveda: Yogachudamani Upanishad, Darshana - Upanishad
  5. Rigveda: Nadabindu - Upanishad

Paul Deussen assigns some Upanishads of the Atharvaveda to the Yoga Upanishads : Brahmavidya Upanishad, Kshurika Upanishad, Culika Upanishad, Nadabindu Upanishad, Brahmabindu Upanishad, Amritabindu Upanishad, Dhyanabindu Upanishad, Tejobindu Upanishad, Yogashikha Upanishad, Yogatattva Upanishad und Hamsa Upanishad.

Veda - affiliation
  • Rigveda : 1. Aitareya, Aksha-Malika, Atma-Bodha, Bahvricha, Kaushitaki-Brahmana, Mudgala, Nada-Bindu, Nirvana Upanishad, Saubhagya-Lakshmi, Tripura Upanishad
  • Sama : Avyakta, Chāndogya, Darshana Upanishad, Jabali, Kena, (62. Aruni (or Aruneyi), Kundika, Maha, Maitrayani, Maitreya, Rudraksha-Jabala, Sannyasa, Savitri, Vajrasuchika , Vasudeva, Yoga Chudamani Upanishad
  • Shuklapaksha Yajurveda : Kaṭha, Śvetāśvatara, Maitrāyaṇi Upanishad; Īṣa, Bṛhadāraṇyaka ; Adhyatma, Advaya-Taraka, Brihadaranyaka, Isavasya, Jabala, Mandala-Brahmana, Mantrika, Muktika Upanishad, Niralamba, Paingala, Paramahamsa, Satyayaniya, Subala, Tara-Sara , Trisikhi-Brahmana, Turiyatita-Avadhuta, Yajnavalkya Upanishad
  • Krishnapaksha Yajurveda : Akshi Upanishad, Amrita-Bindhu Upanishad, Amrita-Nada Upanishad, Avadhuta, Brahma-Vidya Upanishad, Brahma Upanishad, Dakshinamurthi Upanishad, Dhyana-Bindu, Ekakshara Upanishad, Garbha Upanishad, Kaivalya Upanishad, Kalagni-Rudra, Kali-Santarana, Katha Upanishad, Katharudra, Kshurika, Maha-Narayana (oder Yajniki), Pancha Brahma Upanishad, Pranagnihotra, Rudra-Hridaya, Sarasvati-Rahasya, Sariraka Upanishad, Sarva-Sara, Skanda, Suka-Rahasya, Svetasvatara, Taittiriya, Tejo-Bindu, Varaha, Yoga-Kundalini, Yoga-Sikha, Yoga-Tattva Upanishad[4]
  • Atharva : Annapurna, Atharvasikha, Atharvasiras, Atma, Bhasma-Jabala, Bhavana, Brihad-Jabala, Cûlikâ, Dattatreya, Devi, Ganapati, Garuda Upanishad, Gopala-Tapaniya, Hayagriva - Upanishad, Krishna Upanishad, Maha-Vakya, Māṇḍūkya, Muṇḍaka, Narada-Parivrajaka, Nrisimha-Tapaniya, Nila Rudra, Pinda, Para-Brahma, Paramahamsa-Parivrajaka, Pasupata Brahmana, Prasna, Rama Rahasya, Rama-Tapaniya, Sandilya, Sarabha, Sita, Surya, Tripadvibhuti-Mahanarayana, Tripura-Tapini - Upanishad.

Vishnu-Upanishads

Paul Deussen described the following Upanishads belonging to the Atharvaveda as Vishnu Upanishads : Maha Upanishad, Narayana-Upanishad, Atmabodha-Upanishad, Nrisinha-Purva-Tapaniya Upanishad, Nrisinha-Uttara- Tapaniya Upanishad, Rama-Purva-Tapaniya Upanishad sowie die Rama-Uttara-Tapaniya Upanishad.

Sannyasa Upanishads

He counted the following upanishads  of the Atharvaveda to the Sannyasa Upanishads: Brahma Upanishad, Sannyasa Upanishad, Aruneya Upanishad, Kanthashruti Upanishad, Paramahamsa Upanishad, Jabala Upanishad und Ashrama Upanishad. Andere Aufzählungen umfassen bis zu 20 Upanishaden wie Brahma, Jabala, Arunika, Paramahamsa, Maitreyi, Nirvana, Narada Parivrajaka, Bhikshuka, Turiyatitavadhuta, Sanyasa, Paramahamsaparivrajaka, Kundika, Parabrahma, Avadhuta, Katharudra , Yajnavalkya und Satyayani.

Saamnaya Upanishads

As Saamnaya Upanishads are 27 Upanishades classified: Svetasvatara, Garbha, Maitrayani, Kaushitaki,Subala, Mantrika, Sarvasara, Niralamba, Sukarahasya, Vajrasuchi, Atmabodha, Skanda, Mudgala, Paingala, Mahat, Sariraka, Ekakshara, Annapurna, Surya, Akshi, Adhyatma, Savitri, Atma, Pranaagnihotra und Muktika.

Shaiva Upanishads

The Shaiva - Upanishades are : Kaivalya Upanishad, Atharvasira Upanishad, Atharvasikha Upanishad, Akshamalika Upanishad, Brahajjabala Upanishad, Kaalagnirudra Upanishad, Dakshinamurthi Upanishad, Sarabha Upanishad, Pasupathabramopanishad, Rudrahrudaya Upanishad, Bhasmajabala Upanishad, Rudrakshajabala Upanishad, Ganapati Upanishad und die Jabali Upanishad.

According to Paul Deussen they are: Atharva Shiras Upanishad, Atharvashikha Upanishad, Nilarudra Upanishad, Kalagnirudra Upanishad and Kaivalya Upanishad.

Shakta Upanishads

To the 8 Sakta Upanishads count  : Sita, Tripuratapini Upanishad, Annapurna Upanishad, Devi Upanishad, Tripura, Bhavana, Saubhagyalakshmi Upanishad, Sarasvatirahasya Upanishad and Bahvrichi Upanishad.

Oupnekhat

In 1656 the Sultan Mohammed Dara Shakoh sent several Indian scholars from Benares to Delhi to translate a collection of fifty Upanishads under the title Oupnekhat into Persian. Anquetil Duperron translated this persian transation word by word, with the Persian sentence constructions, into Latin (2 vol., Argentorati 1801-1802). Using this Persian-Latin translation and the indian originals A. Weber published in Indian Studies, Vols. I, II, and IX  a first-time elaboration of the material.

 1. Tschehandouk (Chândogya); 2. Brehdarang (Bṛihadâraṇyaka); 3. Mitri (Maitrâyaṇîya); 4. Mandek (Muṇḍaka); 5. Eischavasieh (Îçâ); 6. Sarb (Sarvopanishatsâra); 7. Naraïn (Nârâyaṇa); 8. Tadiw (Tadeva = Vâj. Samh. 32,1-12, übersetzt Gesch. d. Phil. I, 291); 9. Athrbsar (Atharvaçiras); 10. Hensnad (Haṅsanâda); 11. Sarbsar (Sarvasâra = Ait. Âr. 2, die Aitareya-Up. einschliessend, oben S. 10-11); 12. Kok'henk (Kaushîtaki); 13. Sataster (Çvetâçvatara); 14. Porsch (Praçna); 15. Dehian band (Dhyânabindu); 16. Maha oupnek'hat (Mahâ); 17. Atma pra boudeh (Âtmaprabodha); 18. Kioul (Kaivalya); 19. Schat roudri (Çatarudriyam = Vâj. Samh. 16, verkürzt als Nîlarudra-Up).; 20. Djog sank'ha (Yogaçikhâ); 21. Djogtat (Yogatattva); 22. Schiw sanklap (Çivasamkalpa = Vâj. Samh. 34,1-6, übersetzt Gesch. d. Phil. I, 335); 23. Abrat sak'ha (Atharvaçikhâ); 24. Atma (Âtma); 25. Brahm badia (Brahmavidyâ); 26. Anbrat bandeh (Amṛitabindu, richtiger Brahmabindu); 27. Tidj bandeh (Tejobindu); 28. Karbheh (Garbha); 29. Djabal (Jâbâla); 30. Maha naraïn (Mahânârâyaṇa); 31. Mandouk (Mâṇḍûkya); 32. Pankl1; 33. Tschehourka[535] (Kshurikâ); 34. Pram hens (Paramahaṅsa); 35. Arank (Âruṇika); 36. Kin (Kena); 37. Kiouni (Kâṭhaka); 38. Anandbli (Ânandavallî = Taitt. 2); 39. Bharkbli (Bhṛiguvallî = Taitt. 3); 40. Bark'he soukt (Purushasûktam, Ṛigv. 10,90 nebst Uttaranârâyaṇam, Vâj. Samh. 31,17-22; übersetzt Gesch. d. Phil. I, 156 fg., 290 fg).; 41. Djounka (Cûlikâ); 42. Mrat lankoul (Mṛityulâ gala); 43, Anbratnad (Amṛitanâda, besser Amṛitabindu); 44. Baschkl (Vâshkala?); 45. Tschhakli (Châgaleya?); 46. Tark (Târaka = Târasâra 2, Telugudruck p. 745 und Râmottaratâpanîya 2); 47. Ark'hi (Ârsheya?); 48. Pranou (Praṇava?); 49. Schavank (Çaunaka?); 50. Nersing'heh atma (Nṛisiṅha)[7].